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ESON.

Mr. J. S. JAM

THE STORY OF

foe KEAK COLUMN

OF THE

EMIN PASHA PELIER EXPEDITION

JAMES SY AMESON

NATURALIST TO THE EXPEDITION

EDITED BY Mrs. JAMES S. JAMESON

ILLUSTRATED BY C. WHYMPER FROM THE AUTHOR’S ORIGINAL SKETCHES

WITH NEW MAP AND FAC SIMILE LETTER FROM TIPPU TIB

NATURAL HISTORY APPENDIX:

BIRDS, BY R. R. BOWDLER SHARPE, F.Z. S.

COLEOPTERA, BY H. W. BATES, F.R.S. LEPIDOPTERA, RHOPALOCERA AanpD HETEROCERA

BY OSBERT SALVIN, F.R.S., F. DU CANE GODMAN, F.R.S, H. DRUCE, F.L.S.

Authorized Edition

NEW YORK

UNITED STATES BOOK COMPANY SUCCESSORS TO

JOHN W. LOVELL COMPANY 150 WORTH ST., COR. MISSION PLACE

Cc"

PRINTING AND BOO! : NEW Y

CONTENTS,

List oF ILLUSTRATIONS eRe icici: Gail Catvet taller to Montane ko HMTLORSE OLR ihc hon Gn alae Uo hevert Soa Siar stele PREFACE ee oe ee ee eo ee ee ee es ee

INTRODUCTION ee ee ees ee ee ee ee ee ee

CHAPTER I. EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS.

Joming Stanley and Orficers of the Expedition.—Zanzibar.— Tippu-Tib.—War between Soudanese and Zanzibaris, Stories about Tippu-Tib.—Cape Town.—Buying dogs.— Stanley refuses carrier for Jameson’s collecting-things and

big rifle-——Banana Point

CHAPTER II. DIARY.—JOURNEY UP THE CONGO. 1887.—March 19th to April 30th.

Boma.—Ango-Ango.— Mpalaballa Mission Station.—March to Congo da Lemba.—Banza Manteka.—Day’s march resembling slave-driving.—Kuilu River.—March to Vombo.—Stanley doing rear-guard.—Barttelot sent on with Soudanese.—Sick chief. Lutété. Kindness of the missionaries.—Stanley settling a row.—Inkissi River.—Thief.—Stanley’s punish-

ment of chiefs.— Off to shoot hippo. Difficulty about

steamers.—Kinshassa.— Ward joins the Expedition

iV CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

THE UPPER CONGO. May \st to June 7th.

Start up the Upper Congo.—Scenery on the Pool.—Spiders’ webs. —Mswata.—Bula Matadi.—Man proposes, and God disposes. -—Bolobo.—Buffalo hunt.—Jameson is informed that he is to be left at Yambuya.—Looting.—Lukulela.—Scenes with

PAGE

Stanley.—Equator Station.—Dine with Mr. Glave.— Uranga. .

—Bangala.—Houssas eaten by natives.—Fever.—Upoto.— Stanley’s distrust of his oilicers’ V5.2 ss isle) eee

CHAPTER IV.

OCCUPATION OF YAMBUYA, June 8th to July 31st.

Letter to Mrs. Jameson.—Pass burning villages.—Arrival at Aru- wimi River.—Conical-shaped huts.—Occupation of Yambuya. —Arrival of the Henry Reed.—Stanley’s letter of instruc- tions.— Re-packing bales for Emin.—Barttelot made blood- brother” with native chief.—Rations for six months.— ‘‘ Beggars must not be choosers.”—Stanley’s departure.— Building boma.— Extraordinary flight of butterflies Palaver with natives.—‘“‘ Collecting” captives.— Natives capture Omari. —Woman escapes.—Uselessness of chiefs—Gum-copal

CHAPTER V. YAMBUYA CAMP. July 27th to December 31st.

Letter to Mrs. Jameson.—No news of Tippu-Tib.—Promise to protect natives.—Reported arrival of Tippu’s men.—Return of deserter from Stanley’s party.—His statement.—Arrival

60

CONTENTS. Vv PAGE of the Stanley.—Raid on the natives by Tippu-Tib’s people. —Final departure of the Stanley.—First visit of Tippu-Tib’s Arabs to Yambuya Camp.—Bonny crosses river to native village.—Abdullah punished for stealing an axe.—Jameson and Ward start for Stanley Falls.—Natives offer to make them princes.—Yalisula.—Arrival at the Falls.—Received by Tippu-Tib.—He explains non-arrival of men.—Native wrestling-match.—Jameson makes Tippu present of big rifle. —Return to Yambuya.—Soudanese punished for theft.— Selim bin Mahommed.—Arabs shoot down natives.—Dis- appointing news from Tippu-Tib.—Rumours of Stanley’s return.—Barttelot and Troup start for Falls—A man pos- sessed by a devil.—Deserter’s story.—Bonny’s surgical skill. —The Major returns.—Omaha.—Report of a white man coming down river.—Fresh disappointment.—Jaundice.— Arabs try to prevent trade with natives.—Burgari Mahom- med steals meat from Ward’s house.—Living skeletons.— . Three dreams.—Ungungu captured by Arabs.—Christmas Day.—Fresh trouble between Arabs and natives SUG Aiea nS Ly

CHAPTER VI. YAMBUYA CAMP. 1888.—January Ist to February 13th,

New Year’s Day.—Natives return with captured Arab.—Barttelot and Jameson have palaver with natives.—Natives consult the oracles and inspect white men.—More reports from Stanley’s deserters.—Assad Farran sees a whale.—Visit from Arab Venuses.—Sobarus Pogge: beetle.—Dead bodies floating down river.—Wretched state of Zanzibaris in camp.—One fifth of entire force lost.—Goliath beetle.—Conversation with Selim Mahommed.—Probable dangers to Mr. Stanley’s force from death and desertion.—Arabs attack natives.—Arabs fight among themselves.—Natives steal canoes from -Arabs.— Anniversary of Jameson’s wedding.—More raids on the natives.—Burgari Mahommed at large.—Natives eat cap- tured Arabs.—Burgari captured, and shot .. .. .. «. 177

vi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER VII,

KASSONGO.

February 14th to April 26th.

Start with the Major for Stanley Falls.—Meet a number of men from Kassongo.—Singatini.—Interview with Nzige.—No news of Stanley.—Hunting for game in the jungle.—Letter from Yambuya Camp.—Shock of earthquake.—Anxious waiting.—Sketching regarded as sorcery by Mahommedans. —Fever.—Letter from Troup.—Barttelot arranges to send Jameson to Kassongo.—Letter to Mrs. Jameson.—Start for Kassongo.— Yankéwé. Wild-looking natives.— Wamanga Rapids.—Meet men from Kassongo.—Kibongé.—Jameson writes to Stanley.—Kapruta.—Assad Farran hunts for onions. Kasuku.— Kindness of Arab chief. Poisoned arrows.—Riba-Riba.—Shooting hippos.—Three great chiefs. Tippu-Tib’s names.—Dangerous natives.—Head men fear a night attack. Quanga.—Nyangwé.—Kindness of Arabs.— Arrival at Kassongo.—Tippu-Tib.—Fertile country.—Salem Masudi.— Tippu agrees to provide men.— Sketching.— Jameson writes to Mr. Mackinnon.—Letter to Mrs. Jameson. —Arab customs.—Conversation with ‘Tippu-Tib.—Muni Ketomba. cjg (sks ilele arene Si one om eesuanie ten satuen. Damian

PAGE

CHAPTER VIII.

RETURN TO YAMBUYA.

April 27th to June 10th.

Start back for Yambuya.—Delay at starting-point on the river.— Thirty-four of Tippu’s men run away.—Tippu and Cameron. —Chiefs arrive to bid farewell to Tippu-Tib.—Mirésa.— Tippu’s conversation in Swahili—Two canoes sunk.—A narrow escape.—Assad Farran’s uselessness.—Riba-Riba.— Wacusu dance.—Cannibals.—Conversation with Tippu.—

CONTENTS. vil

PAGE Muni Somai.—Kibongé.—Chimpanzees.—Tippu’s account of a journey with Stanley.—Stanley Falls.—Barttelot’s inter- view with Tippu-Tib.—Start for Yambuya.—Troup sends in application to be sent home.—Hard at work reducing loads, —Caps turn out to be bad.—Letter to Mrs. Jameson .._ .. 277

CHAPTER IX.

THE LAST MARCH.

June 11th to August 8th.

Final start from Yambuya Camp.—Manyémas loot the Camp.— Abdullah’s village.—Muni Somai has trouble with Manyémas. Fourteen men desert.—Jameson returns to Yambuya in search of missing loads.—-Selim Mahommed guarantees to recover loads and rifles.—More desertions.—Small-pox.— Muni Somai goes in search of deserters, and is fired at.— Theft of beads.—Trouble with the Muniaparas.—A long day of disaster.— Major Barttelot returns to Stanley Falls, leaving Jameson in command.—Fresh trouble with Manyémas.— Jameson arrives at Ujéle-—Takes over command from Bonny. —Muni Somai utterly useless as a commander.—Mquan- gandy.—Letters from Barttelot ordering whole force to pro- ceed to Unaria.— War amongst head men.—A night fusillade. Bonny loses his way.—Muni Haméla hands over to Jameson 40,000 Enfield caps.—News of Major Barttelot’s death.—Arrival at Unaria.—Interview with three head Manyémas.—Jameson offers reward for Sanga’s arrest.— Jameson proceeds to Stanley Falls.—Finds the Manyémas camped in forest.—Meets Muni Somai.—Nasoro Masudi warns Jameson that Manyémas have threatened to shoot him.—Arival at Stanley Falls.—Interview with Tippu.— Muni Somai tried and convicted of desertion.—Letter to Andrew Jameson.—Letter to Mrs. Jameson.— Rachid declines to accompany Jameson.—Tippu volunteers to do so for £20,000.—Trial and death of Sanga.—Jameson determines to go to Bangala in order to obtain reply from Committee.— Mr. Stanley’s letter toJameson .. .. «2 eo «of «+ 308

Vill CONTENTS.

CHAPTER X.

LAST SCENES,

August 9th to August 18th. PAGE

Last Journey.—Mr. Ward’s diary—Death .. .. .. .. .«. 367

Apprnpices I.—XI. Reel hides i SORES hee) eee

Facsimile of Agreement written by Mr. Jameson forms Appendix IX. Facsimile of Tippu-Tib’s letter faces translation on page 391.

NATURAT-HIstTORY ‘APPENDIX 05 (cc) 00 Sea 0 a a ee Expranation or Map or Upper Conco.. .. 1. .. .. 453-455

Map or River Conao, trom Stanley Falls to Kassongo (end of volume),

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

Ae ie eae PAGE

Portrait of the late Jamus S. JamEson sist plete orale Frontispiece

| White or Square-mouthed Rhinoceros (Hhinoceros simus) .. xi Slave Girl | 9

Peter’s Fetish 10

Boma ne Tt

Ango-Ango .. .. 12

Mission Road near Moalahalle 14

Native Justice ee 22

Native Method of iisd-exteldne Bs 23

Ivory War Horn .. . 34

Diagram of Spiders’ Webs 36

Head of Native of Mswata .. a7 Kwamouth +U Fisherman’s Hut .. Bel ar aye pliers ate mace 46 ECHL: 8 ARS SSM ea aE Ss 58

Shields ee cat ea Ie aaa sega) ee. OO

Memerer Or WOLO. 590 ae) eat es wee Sele fee ee ws 59

Re Se et te NS at foie h ioe) fee Co 3) os 60 Native Chief in top. tak. Coin eaven cersy shadee whore 62 Spears and Shield Le ease ate ENO RR EU ING 66

Tattooing .. SNE MORE mene 66 Entrenched ia Main ees os 69 mapas, irom the Camp .. 2.0 ss» 80 LL ieee nT Ren tral Vy ee aa Re 84 Water Pot, Sonebuya te 85 Mego lah 250. es ss 92 Wataku Box. : : 96 Yambuya. So irew ee deat river bao Hatronehod ca. 98 Plan of Entrenched Camp, Yambuya 101 Bell and Musical Instrument BOP MeN A ocd A gd 106 Matajabu i... Nee eh ota a elenyiciecel ites | 6s ot Native Bee howls, LOA (SPUR Ome a Sa ea 112 Chief’s Grave, Yaweeko 6) ie ON rae SA ees gk ra a re Lt7 Stanley Falls 12]

x LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

A Champion... ..

SID Catal es Ss Elephant’s Head .. Yambau

Selim bin Nehotmned

A Native of the Upper Gees Sucking-Fish sete fe Yambuya Palisade

Pattern on inside of Dish

Native Stool, Yambuya

Starving Zanzibari

War-Knife, Upoto ea Native Method of adeaas 36 Mr. Jameson, drawn | H. Ward My Home eS civke kee itiove Stun Tattooing

Cowrie Head- fireke: a aieis War-Knife from Lumami River .. Wataku Pottery ..

Tattooing A Glimpse across rerett River Small War-Knife .

Slave Girl :

My Friend Mined a

Ks Lea 4

Curry-Eyes :

A Savage hae his ease

My Bow Paddle’ a5 ei) Sis Wamanga Rapids aie

Kibongé sive ee

Native of Wamanea

‘‘ A long shove, and a strong shove, ail a she, goes”

‘¢ And down she comes with a run” Knife from Kassongo

‘Lukutula”

Wagania Village, near assongs Landing-place, Kassongo .. .. Double Drum, and Striker .. Waper Moneys eas sie) ere KASEI O Ua Mic cl) haven iva eic Palen ty a Road to Ujiji SOEs tech Se Native of Unyanembi ... .. ,-

PAGE 125 127 133 134 136 140 143 155 159 160 165 166 176 10% 179 186 195 201 205

Z11

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. x]

PAGE Drummer and Dancer of Quemba See ry chee Mim eM tee yaoi aide gus we FO)

Peeraral nes hatin Waewi este Wane ee ties veranda Wake sid) Capen: Otel huge code! EL OU Woe er the lurian tetera acl ia ns ha thr bel abe a Sa age

Wagania Huts .. ices UEC Hea oaks Seed Inge al eR aK 6 “* Nothing like Independence” Rea bia ie erate ike Ni Peis! = ehh Mittine \Womatmiim Market Ga este oceroce a es ae ce ee

Oneso tippu- Dib sun pedrers! 56°. Soe Pe eu BOT Longa-Longa BO ere a rae Aad aM rent ie abies Male, Ue bo OO

ae Mulan Onna atbeper eon! We hee eat! Nard walewnt era) oy eels dco hy anes OO Assimene .. Deane Car aserrc em RGN Un Tae camara. Og Bunch of Pientaina Me Han GPR an) Vi erdake CCR. ois | OO

A New Way of i peaae Gactans seitiewee Oo a wa ey ergiad OOF River Scene... .. Sahin ie eile pate mee rie OO

Major Barttelot seed on ae old Deum wee woul Wey ep aie: canees OOO Perea Or MNO sOl MEARE Ay. ee eh ee ae bs ie) acer Oe Native of Upper Congo ean cee Warne (Nari irene state nicl) kena. Sesee A Canoe Journey... serie Aaa OE The House in Sek ue ce ameson died at ene, Sea i mars 740) The Last Journey Pee aii SRL Nea ieee aL.” <a PeaOStaplnOU GEAVES. ie) gin lee Seal ses be wakes ee COTS Mira niner ASC ig) Beate a cm, gti Male wera Mar eae)? po Pela Wass <> BLO ME PeGOOUU Cai Mee vtce teeth iene mane og) ana eee BD Serre Pere einai d \eie cae! Bate yi lrmie Nee! Vee, Wat cage, ADO

WHITE oR SQUARE-MOUTHED RHINOCEROS,

£ 3 [a BT aoe | ad 2) SN ‘Sy ~ om] oe n= fon as te) oA bo a 2 Se dD she as ge a } Pas @ > a3 o's 2 3 | ~ 0 Oo mM

?

. J. 5. Jameson

[The above was mounted

EDITOR’S NOTE.

Tues letters and diaries were not originally intended for pub- lication ; but it has been thought that they may be read with interest by many, and that, having regard to the accusations recently made against the leaders of the Rear Column, it is desirable that they should be published in what is practically their original form, with only such alterations as their private nature required.

_ In the preparation of this work, I have throughout had the advantage of the constant advice and sympathetic help of my brother-in-law, Mr. ANDREW JAMESON.

I have received much kindness from Mr. Herpert Warp, who sealed and sent home those of Mr. Jameson’s diaries and papers which he brought with him to the coast, and gave me several interesting sketches of his own for insertion in this volume. A still deeper debt of gratitude is due to him for the tender solicitude with which he nursed my husband during those last hours at Bangala.

I wish further to express my hearty thanks to several of my husband’s friends who have rendered me valuable assistance by preparing the scientific parts of this book, contained in the Appendices.

To Mr. R. Bowpier Suarre, F.Z.S., I am indebted both for a sketch of Mr. Jameson’s career as a naturalist, and for his very valuable paper on the birds of the Aruwimi; and

X1V EDITOR'S NOTE.

to Messrs. H. W. Bares, F.R.S., Osspert Satvin, F.B.S., F. DuCanz Gopman, F.R.S., and Hersert Drvcz, F.Z.S., my thanks are most deservedly due for the care they have bestowed upon the Entomological portion of the Appendices. It is a matter of deep regret that only a remnant of the collec- tions made by Mr. Jameson on the Aruwimi ever reached my hands.

The Rev. J. M. Ropwett has kindly rendered the translatiou of the Arabic letter from Tippu-Tib, and the Rev. Canon J. J. CarmicuaEL, LL.D., has merited my warmest thanks for his valuable help. |

Finally, I would acknowledge the artistic skill with which Mr. CHartes Wuymper has reproduced the spirit of my husbaud’s sketches, and the attention and courtesy shown me throughout by Mr. R. H. Porter in the publication of this book.

ETHEL JAMESON. December 12th, 1890.

PREFACE,

“LET THERE BE LIGHT.” (Mr. Stanley's motto for ‘In Darkest Africa.)

“Good name, in man and woman, dear my lord, Is the immediate jewel of their souls: Who steals my purse, steals trash: ’tis something, nothing ; *T was mine, ’tis his, and has been slave to thousands ; But he, that filches from me my good name, Robs me of that which not enriches him, And makes me poor indeed.”

Never was the truth of these lines more vividly illustrated than in the case of the writer of this Diary. The dream of his early life was to add his name to the long roll of those who have striven for some good and useful object. At length the occasion offered itself, as he believed, in the Expedition in which he lost his hfe; to join it he sacrificed his wealth, his home, his family joys and comfort, to live “laborious days,” and find some scope for the pent-up energies within him. He went to his work with a strong zeal and lofty sense of right, did his duty with unselfish heroism in the face of treacheries and overwhelming difficulties, and died a martyr to the cause for which he had so nobly laboured. What is his reward? He is sought to be made the scapegoat of his Commander’s ill- judgment and neglect! Charges of disobedience, disloyalty, forgetfulness of promises, desertion, cruelty, cowardice, and murder are brought against him, on the authority of discredited liars, by a man who is driven to his wits’ end to sustain his

Xvi PREFACE.

reputation against serious imperative accusations. The charges are brought against Jameson when he is in his grave, when the common usage of humanity suggests silence, and when a man of a noble and honourable cast of nature would altogether prefer to lie under an unjust suspicion rather than asperse and defame the voiceless dead. This, however, is not the course which Mr. Stanley has followed. Lest any tinge of discredit should rest on his own fame, he has striven to destroy that of others who are powerless to reply. Upon his remarkable Expedition into Central Africa there rests one dark blot—the disastrous fate of his Rear-Guard, and Mr. Stanley is not a man to admit that he can make mistakes: no blame of any sort can be allowed to sully his record; if the Rear-Guard was wrecked, it was, of course, because his skilful plans and careful orders were neglected and disobeyed; no statement, however desperate and imaginary, will be kept back if only it serve to sustain his egotistical demands upon the credulous admiration of his readers; and so, apparently unconscious of the possibility of contradiction, and fully con- scious of the fact that the men whom he defames are dead, he casts the whole weight of blame upon their helpless heads. The first answer to Mr. Stanley’s charges comes from Captain Walter Barttelot; and it is a crushing one. His reply to this is a flood of malevolent gossip as wicked as it is unproven, in which good care is taken to make the least serious charges against the living, the gravest and most defamatory against the dead. The amount of reliance that can be placed upon Mr. Stauley’s accuracy is an easy question to determine. He suffers even abnormally from that shortness of memory which is, according to a well-known proverb, said to be characteristic of a certain class of people. Thus, on November 8th, 1890, he denies the truth of statements respecting the Rear-Guard made by himself in a book published in the month of June of that self-same year. In Volume I. of ‘In Darkest Africa,’ page 478, after giving a history of all the information he could get from Mr. Bonny, he says, “I have never obtained further light from Mr. Bonny, though at every leisure hour it was a constant theme” (and indeed, from all accounts, it ap- pears that Stanley spared no pains to get from him all he

A

PREFACE. XVli

knew). In the beginning of Vol. II. we find an account of the examination of witnesses from amongst the survivors of the Camp at Yambuya, and the conclusions arrived at are plainly stated—the deaths at Yambuya were due to the manner in which the men cooked their food, among the members of the garrison there were many thieves, and punish- ments were numerous, but were never inflicted except on those who deserved them. All this appears in the month of June 1890. Then Captain Walter Barttelot’s book is published, and Mr. Stanley must needs mend his hand, and so on the 8th of November, 1890, he comes forth with fresh allegations against his officers, and tells a tale quite different from that which he had already published in In Darkest Africa.’ His first statement about the November story casts the gravest doubt upon it, for he says he heard it all at Yambuya in August 1888 (Banalya, a place ninety miles from Yambuya, must be what is meant, as Mr. Stanley never returned to Yambuya, but the mistake, whether intentional or not, is very convenient for him, and, curious to say, he has not yet corrected it). A considerable part of the November story comes from the lips of Mr. Bonny, but if Mr. Stanley heard it all in August 1888, how could he, although omitting all mention of it in In Darkest Africa,’ write that he had inserted therein all he had heard from Mr. Bonny 2 Was, then, the statement published November 8th, 1890, that which was told him by Bonny in August 1888, or was it not? If it was, then the above statement by Mr. Stanley on the subject, published in ‘In Darkest Africa,’ was not true; if it was not the story told him in 1888, then Mr. Stanley’s account of the real reasons which led him to condemn his officers, given in the most public and final manner, is absolutely false. On the second horn of this dilemma Mr. Stanley is inexorably fixed, for Mr. Bonny, in his statement to the ¢ Times,’ declares that he told these things to Stanley for the first time on Sunday, October 26th, 1890, and not at Banalya, on the Congo, in August 1888. That is to say, the only justification which Mr. Stanley, when put on his defence, produces for the condemnation of his officers in 1888, is hearsay evidence

procured by him in 1890. b

XVill PREFACE.

It is worth while to expatiate a little upon this bold attempt of Mr. Stanley’s to mislead people into believing that the evidence upon which he grounded his charge was obtained from a general inquiry into the matter made by him upon the Congo in 1888, and not upon the particular evidence of three witnesses obtained in 1890. For instance, he talks on this wise when in- troducing to public notice his charges of November 8th, 1890 :—~_ “The sentence of my report with which Mr. Barttelot finds fault, and in which I censure the commander of the Rear Column, was written in August 1888, two days after I had met Mr. Bonny and the emaciated remnant of the Rear Column. On learning then the details of what had transpired during my absence, I wrote that the irresolution of the officers, the neglect of their promises, and their indifference to the written orders I gave them, had caused this woful collapse. You ask me to justify that censure, It will probably be the best way, in order to satisfy any legitimate interest in this question, to tell the story as I heard it at Yambuya, because in that way the public will better understand the shocking effect it had on me when, hastening to their relief, I was met by the following reve- lations*. And here comes the point. You will find in the log of my book ‘In Darkest Africa,’ even in its abridged form, that the men of the Rear Column came forward to present their complaints; and much of the following information I obtained from Mr. Bonny, the Zanzibaris, the Arabs, and the Man- yéma.” Then follow the statements which Stanley says were at that time made to him, the very first of them being the poisoning story, with which Mr. Bonny’s most exciting state- ment has since made us familiar. But alas! for the accu- racy of Mr. Stanley, Bonny informs us that he told Stanley that tale on Sunday, October 26th, 1890, two years and two months after the date which Mr. Stanley fixes for its first recital. The fact is that Stanley deliberately endeavours to lead the public to believe that the evidence upon which he bases his foulest charges against the officers of the Rear-Guard was obtained by him in August 1888, when, beyond yea or nay,

* The italics are my own.—A. J.

PREFACE. x1x

he never got it till October 1890, so far as Bonny is concerned, and Assad Farran only made his statement to him in Cairo in March of the same year.

In respect of the cannibal story, a reader of Mr. Stanley’s statement of November 8th, 1890, would conclude that at Yam- buya in 1888, an eye-witness of the scene drew up a statement in his own handwriting in the presence of witnesses; that this statement was shown to Mr. Stanley there, and is the one he publishes; that the evidence taken on the subject by the Congo Free State authorities was also shown to him there, and that these facts were the principal reasons for the letter which he says he wrote to Jameson, but which has never since been seen, or even heard of, until now mentioned by © Mr. Stanley himself. On the 10th November, 1890, however, he publishes another statement, in which he tells us that Bonny told him the story, that a Zanzibari who had been at Stanley Falls corroborated it, and that he was told the Congo Free State authorities intended arresting Jameson. Where has the eye-witness gone to, and the evidence taken by the authorities which he relied on before? The eye-witness in this second statement is revealed in Assad Farran, and the evidence taken before the authorities dwindles to the story told him about their intentions. But how do the two statements look when read together? Was not the first a plain attempt to make it appear that evidence obtained at a subsequent date was tendered to him at Yambuya, and does the second statement not show that Stanley’s real ‘‘ witnesses were Bonny and Assad Farran ? Dees not Stanley publish the story Assad Farran tells him in 1890, and Bonny vouch for the truth of it, only placing it all in the mouth of Jameson himself?

It is absolutely necessary to nail Mr. Stanley to names and dates. He wants the public now to believe, contra his own already expressed statement, contra the inexorable logic of proven facts, that he was acquainted in August 1888 with all the charges of his outrageous indictment of November 8th, 1890, and that he then obtained the proofs of them from various witnesses among the survivors of the Rear-Guard, from Bonny, Arabs, Zanzibaris, and Manyéma, and that, on the information

62

xx PREFACE,

obtained in those two days of inquiry, he wrote his condemnation of his officers. “T had a grandmother, she had a donkey, And when that donkey looked her in the face, His face was sad, and you are sad, my public.”

In the enthusiasm of an evanescent hero-worship the British public sinks occasionally for a time below the level of its average sagacity It gazes with a sweet confiding affection upon the masculine idol of its temporary adoration ; but woe to him who would presume upon the constancy of that love; it is too fickle and fastidious to have time or temper for lovers’ quarrels and their proverbial results. By an inevitable reaction, it is certain soon to become as suspicious and exacting as it was once full of loud and intolerant confidence; the more so, if it comes to think that there is any attempt to trifle with its amiable credulity. This is what Mr. Stanley will soon begin to feel. The idea is already abroad that he is seeking to delude the public judgment, especially in the way of insinuating that he is embarrassed by the number of his witnesses, when, in point of fact, he has produced but three—Bonny, Assad Farran, and Saleh ben Osman, his own Zanzibari servant. That it is perfectly possible for Mr. Stanley to produce many more witnesses of the type of Saleh ben Osman no one can doubt who is acquainted with the real nature of native evidence of this description ; and if the Congo Free State authorities had any wish to adopt his peculiar line of conduct, it is equally certain the application of the questioning” system would be attended with satisfactory results.

But in what a light does all this place the author of ‘In Darkest Africa’! Is it the pure light which shines round a_ man striving to make the truth known? or is it the baneful gleam of those darksome shades in which Mr. Stanley tells us a vast crop of lying is germinated ?

He deals with his evidence like the Irish planners of an alibi, He changes the date to suit the necessities of his case; with an astounding unfairness, he condemns his officers first, and tries them afterwards. Having failed in his efforts at the time and on the spot to obtain from Bonny and the coloured witnesses

PREFACE. xxi

sufficient condemnatory evidence against those whom he had deserted and misled, he strove to work up a case against them by straiming the obvious sense and purport of his orders; by twisting and misrepresenting the writings of Barttelot and Jameson, so as to condemn them, if possible, out of their own mouths, then silenced for ever; and even by daring to break open the seals upon Jameson’s private diary and papers.

Never, in the history of slander, were charges so inju- rious as those levelled against the officers dependent upon - more worthless testimony. It is incomprehensible how any man, with the barest respect for his reputation, could make use of such instruments as two of Mr. Stanley’s witnesses. Assad Farran, the prime concocter of these shameless inven- tions, is a man who (as he himself puts it) would, if he were only questioned enough, “give all the information his examiners wanted ;”’ a man who, when he was asked by the Secretary of the Emin Pasha Relief Committee, Mr. Mac- Dermott, why he had told stories about the officers which he admitted were exaggerated and incorrect, replied “that he thought Major Barttelot and Mr. Jameson had not treated him well, that he had been sent away without clothes or food, and his feeling was bad;” and then he added, “that when those to whom he made his statement on the Congo kept questioning, questioning, and would not let him alone, he had to say all they wanted him to say.”

This is the man who, in March 1890, first told Mr. Stanley some of the stories which that gentleman stated he heard on the Congo in 1888. Nor is Saleh ben Osman, Mr. Stanley’s Zanzibari servant, a more reliable witness than the pitifully discredited Assad Farran. The statement of this worthy, who does not pretend to be an eye-witness of anything, is translated by Mr. Glave, and is a most extraordinary document, bearing its own refutation on its face. At the best it is a mere ré- chauffé of what he had heard concerning these events from Zanzibaris, Arabs, Manyémas, and Soudanese, and if the in- formation derived at first hand from such witnesses is unreli- able, what does it become when filtered through the head of a Zanzibari servant two years after he had heard the tales he tells ?

XXll PREFACE.

No one knows better than Mr. Stanley the utter untrust- worthiness of these Zanzibaris, and the ease with which they may be made to say anything by questioning, questioning.” Even his own character is not safe in their hands, for he is accused by one of the tribe of ordering a live baby to be drowned in the Congo (vide page 111 in Diary), and the Zanzibari who made this statement had no apparent motive for telling a lie, which can hardly be asserted about Mr. Stanley’s most useful witness.

Mr. Stanley is certainly unfortunate in being placed in a position where he must stake his credit on the veracity of such men as these. He has only produced three witnesses at the best: two of them have been proved unworthy of the slightest belief, and the third, his piéce de résistance, Mr. Bonny, is far from being as satisfactory as the cause of justice would require.

Bonny is an ex-sergeant of the Army Hospital Corps, and was a paid servant of Mr. Stanley’s, who styles himself his employer. Our trust in his accuracy of recollection and in- telligent appreciation of facts is somewhat enfeebled, when we remember that Mr. Stanley informs us how Bonny told him that Barttelot, in view of his possible death, had left to him (Bonny) the succession in command over Jameson, an absurd misapprehension, to say the least of it, complicated moreover by a most unpleasant controversy respecting the genuineness of certain orders produced by Bonny, and the alleged suppression of those he was bound to obey. ‘There seems to be a certain amount of inaccuracy about Mr. Bonny. He is unable to adhere to one story, even in the case of such an important incident as that of Major Barttelot’s murder, and varies his description of it, and the circumstances attending it, some three or four times in most vital particulars. But all the same, we are requested to believe that Mr. Bonny is a rare being, gifted with a sym- pathetic attractiveness that draws towards him the inmost confidences of all those with whom he comes in contact. According to Mr. Stanley’s account, he must have been father- confessor ”’ to all in the Camp, for to him, without any sigillum confessionis, men appear to have confided the darkest records and intentions of their lives.

PREFACE. XX1li

The terrible Barttelot reveals to him his intention to poison Selim Mahommed ; tells him that he is getting his brother so to take care of Troup that he will tell no tales at home; imparts to him plots to start expeditions independent of Stanley, and at last even begs of him a medical certificate and leave to retire from the Expedition !

No conditions of existence such as those which apply to ordinary human beings seem able to make such things credible ; and if reliance is to be placed on this part of Stanley’s case, it can only be justified by a belief in some intense magnetic or hypnotic influence exercised by Bonny on those around him.

With all the elaboration, care, and publicity which Mr. Stanley has given to the evidence of these three witnesses, he has failed to produce a statement from their mouths which justifies his charge that the Rear Column was wrecked by the irresolution, the neglect of promises, and the indifference to written orders of the officers he left m command of it,” and he has not lightened in the slightest degree the load of blame under which he himself at present lies.

One turns, as in search of a great relief, from this story of self-seeking, unfairness, and deception, to the record of - a uoble and unselfish life. It must indeed be a strongly prejudiced mind that can read this Diary without being impressed by the sense of the immediate presence of a gentle, loving, and sympathetic nature, keen and true of observation, quick-willed and suggestive, with a pleasant humour and a gallant heart. A man’s diary is a self-revela- tion. His true personality is as certain to present itself continually as the refrain in a theme of music. No man lies to himself, when night after night, as his work is done, he sits down to write out the story of his life from day to day; and the life which Jameson reveals to us in his Diary is one whose keynote is duty, kindliness, and hard work. ‘“ Little did I think,” he writes to Mrs. Jameson a fortnight before his death, “when I spoke to you of my feelings of duty, that | should ever be placed in such a position as I now am, in which all that I feel for you and for our little ones cries out against

XX1V PREFACE.

what I must do as an officer of this Expedition. With one word or even a show of weakness on my part, I could stop the whole Expedition, which seems fated to meet with nothing but reverses, and return to you. But God knows such a thought never entered my heart, although I could easily defend such an action on my part. The first thing that flashed across my brain on finding myself so placed was your father’s favourite text, Know, O man, that to know and love justice and do the thing that is right, that shall bring a man peace at the last ;’ and you will see what a help every word in that verse has been to me now.”

On the same day he writes to his brother, Whatever happens to me, old man, I tried to do my duty to this blessed Expedition ; and many a time, when I have thought of Ethel and home, I would have liked to chuck the whole thing up when there were plenty of officers to take my place.” A brave resolve to go through with what he had undertaken sustained him to the last in the face of dreadful odds. The neglect and unfairness of the Commander of the Expedition—who, as he says, “it is evident takes the word of the Zanzibaris before that of the white men,’’—the cruelty, dishonesty, treachery, and . falsehood of the Arabs with whom he had to deal, the miserable conditions of existence growing worse from day to day, the hope deferred, the bitter consciousness that the slanderer was at work to defame his honour,—however these irons cut into his soul, they dimmed not that gallant sense of duty, which most touchingly displayed itself as a ruling passion, strong in death, when, as he breathed his last, with husky voice he answered to the faintly-heard roll of the drums, They are coming ; they are coming. Let us stand together.”

Numerous and suggestive also are the indications of his kindliness of heart in his anxieties about the sick people in the Camp—African and English, and the grief he so evidently feels at being utterly unable to give them the help they so sorely need. His pity for the natives, too, and the efforts that both he and Barttelot made to save them from the Arabs; the regret he expresses at the inevitable punishments and floggings, all indicate a kind, helpful, and unselfish nature. Poor

PREFACE. XXV

old Derrier Moussa, a Somali,” he writes, who has been our cook for the greater part of our journey, died to-day. He has been ill for a long time. It is horrible to watch these men slowly dying before your face, and not be able to do anything for them.” “Poor Alexander, one of the Soudanese inter- preters, died to-day ; he has been ill for a long time.” “It is a sad, sad sight to see men dying round you every day, and not be able to put out a hand to save them. Without a single fight we have lost close upon seventy men out of our small force, and there are many more who, I am sorry to say, will never leave that Camp. And now good night and good-bye. Kiss the little ones for me, and may God have you all in his safe keeping.”

As to the flogging, he writes—‘‘ Two sentries, who deserted their post last night, were flogged this morning. It is sickening, this continual flogging, but there is no help for it;” and again—‘‘ Went the rounds last night. No sentries asleep, so no flogging this morning, thank goodness.”

The Diary abounds with indications of a vigorous, capable, and unflinching personality. His determination and skill in working with and managing the Arabs, particularly displayed in his politic negotiations with Tippu-Tib, by which at last he obtained the carriers he required—his interview with Muni Katomba at Kassongo—his ungrudging labours at Yambuya before the last start from that home of misery—his unmur- muring endurance of toil and hunger in the march through the forest to Banalya—his fearless return march to Stanley Falls in the face of great dangers—his untiring efforts to secure another Arab commander to come with him—his splendid offer to pledge his fortune for the sake of the Expedition—his unflinching refusal to depart from the route which Stanley had ordered him to follow—his declaration that Barttelot, when he was murdered, was carrying out Stanley’s orders, and that he meant to do the same—all of which acts show how he rose to the occasion of a great crisis: these are the doings of a competent and sagacious man, worthy of the part to which he had been appointed and of the praise of which his Commander has most selfishly and ungenerously sought to rob him.

XXVl PREFACE.

Amidst all the toils and changes of camp-life Jameson found time to gratify his love of natural history and to employ his valuable powers of observation. Unhappily, a large part of his valuable collection was lost when the camp he had just marched from was looted by the Arabs, in whose charge it was left.

There is no doubt that, if he had been possessed of more opportunity and had his life been spared, he would have con- tributed largely to the scientific results of the Expedition.

All noble lives are instinct with a purpose. They read the secret of their destiny, and find no rest until they work it out, wherever it may lead. Results they fear not, although it be their fate, as that of many gone before, to “perish in the wilderness.”

ANDREW JAMESON. D:blin, December 1Uth, 1890.

INTRODUCTION.

James Sutico JameEson was born on the 17th of August, 1856, at the Walk House, Alloa, Clackmannanshire. His father, Andrew Jameson, was a son of John Jameson, of Dublin. He held agencies for some estates in Scotland, and was a man of great cultivation and refinement, possessed of both literary and scientific tastes. His wife, Margaret, daughter of James Cochrane, of Glen Lodge, Sligo, died a few days after the birth of their third son, James.

At a very early age the tastes of the child foretokened those which were to form the ruling interest of his after-life, viz. those for travel and natural history in all its branches. When quite a small boy,